Economía del comportamiento para mejorar estilos de vida y reducir factores de riesgo

Gaceta Sanitaria, vol. 34(2), pp. 197-199 (2020)

Autores: José María Abellán y David Jimenez-Gómez

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Resumen

Una parte importante de la morbimortalidad se debe a hábitos de vida y factores de riesgo modificables. Una estrategia prometedora para promover el cambio de tales factores pasa por la aplicación de intervenciones de salud pública basadas en la economía del comportamiento, rama del conocimiento que combina principios psicológicos y económicos. Este artículo se centra en un tipo de intervención conocida como nudge (traducida habitualmente como «empujón» o «acicate»), que modifica la conducta sin restringir la capacidad de elección de las personas. Se analizan las diferentes propiedades que caracterizan a los nudges y diversos ámbitos en los que se han aplicado con éxito: vacunación, alimentación, actividad física, cesación tabáquica y prescripción de medicamentos. En conclusión, la economía del comportamiento y los nudges tienen un gran potencial para su aplicación en la esfera de la salud pública en España.

Abstract

A large part of morbimortality is caused by lifestyle habits and modifiable risk factors. A promising strategy to promote the change of such factors is the implementation of public health interventions based on behavioral economics, a discipline that combines psychological and economic principles. In the present article, we focus on a type of intervention known as «nudge» (that has been translated into Spanish as «empujón» or «acicate»), that changes behavior without limiting the individual’s choice. We analyze the properties that characterize nudges, and several areas in which they have been successfully implemented: vaccination, nutrition, physical activity, smoking cessation and drug prescription. We conclude that behavioral economics and nudges have great potential for their implementation in the public health sphere in Spain.

Impacto de la Ley de Dependencia sobre el gasto autonómico en servicios sociales


Gaceta Sanitaria, vol. 34(1), pp. 21-25. (2020)

Autores: Jorge Eduardo Martínez Pérez, Fernando Ignacio Sánchez Martínez, José María Abellán Perpiñán.

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Objetivo

En este trabajo se cuestiona si el desarrollo del Sistema de Autonomía y Atención a la Dependencia (SAAD) contribuyó a incrementar el volumen de recursos del sistema público de servicios sociales (efecto desplazamiento) o, por el contrario, si dicho desarrollo se produjo a costa del resto de prestaciones de servicios sociales (efecto sustitución).

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An empirical characterization of high-risk drivers in Spain. The role of gender, age, marital status and education

Transportation Research Part F, vol. 66, pp. 430 – 444. (2019).

Autores: Eduardo Martínez Gabaldón, Jorge Eduardo Martínez Pérez, Ildefonso Méndez.

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Abstract

Traffic accidents are both a major economic and public health problem worldwide. The authors use data from the May 2016 Spanish barometer (n = 1632) to analyse the characteristics of drivers who declare different types of risky driving behaviours. The authors’ estimates suggest that the likelihood of being a high-risk driver in Spain increases with educational attainment and decreases with age.

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Las perspectivas demográficas y el Sistema Sanitario

Revista Ekonomiaz, Nº. 96(2), pp. 124-139. (2019).

Autores: José María Abellán Perpiñán, Jorge Eduardo Martínez Pérez.

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Resumen

La revisión efectuada del impacto que poseen los factores puramente demográficos en la evolu-ción del gasto sanitario público en España sugiere que su incidencia es limitada. La preponderan-cia otorgada históricamente a la edad cronológica como factor determinante del crecimiento del gasto se ve muy atenuada, en estudios más recientes, cuando se toma en consideración la proxi-midad a la muerte.

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Measuring Health Utility in Economics

Oxford Research Enciclopedias, 2019

Autores: José Luis Pinto-Prades, Arthur Attema, y Fernando Ignacio Sánchez Martínez

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Summary

Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are one of the main health outcomes measures used to make health policy decisions. It is assumed that the objective of policymakers is to maximize QALYs. Since the QALY weighs life years according to their health-related quality of life, it is necessary to calculate those weights (also called utilities) in order to estimate the number of QALYs produced by a medical treatment.

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Estimating the impact of the Penalty Point System on road fatalities in Spain

Transport Policy, Nº 86, pp. 1 – 8. (2019).

Autores: Eduardo Martínez Gabaldón, Ildefonso Martínez Méndez, Jorge Eduardo Martínez Pérez.

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Abstract

Traffic accidents are a major public health concern since they are the leading cause of death for those aged 15–29 years and the ninth cause of death worldwide. In this paper, we estimate the overall effect on traffic fatalities of the introduction of the Penalty Point System (PPS) in Spain in 2006, jointly with those of the publicity campaigns that went with it and the reform of the Penal Code to toughen the consequences of traffic offenses in 2007.

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A Psychometric Comparison of Different Health Utility Measures in Patients Affected by Parkinson’s Disease

Nursing Economic$, vol. 36(5), pp. 233 – 245. (2018).

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Abstract

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic disease affecting quality of life and well-being. Cost utility analyses is a method of determining the cost effectiveness of nursing interventions. These analyses are performed using data from preference based questionnaires.

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Spain. Health system review

Health Systems in Transitions, vol. 20(2). (2018).

Autores: Enrique Bernal-Delgado, Sandra García-Armesto, Juan Oliva, Fernando Ignacio Sánchez Martínez, José Ramón Repullo Luz María Peña-Longobardo, Manuel Ridao-López, Cristina Hernández-Quevedo

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Abstract

This analysis of the Spanish health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Overall health status continues to improve in Spain, and life expectancy is the highest in the European Union. Inequalities in self-reported health have also declined in the last decade, although long-standing disability and chronic conditions are increasing due to an ageing population.

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Aspectos económicos de la salud bucodental en España

Revista Impresiones, nº 84 (Diciembre 2018), pp. 9 – 11.

Autores: Fernando I. Sánchez Martínez, Ángel Olivares Cánovas.

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El Sistema Nacional de Salud español (SNS), cuya actual configuración nace con la Ley General de Sanidad de 1986, aspira a proporcionar a los ciudadanos una cobertura sanitaria universal, tanto en su ámbito subjetivo – a toda la población residente en España-, como en el ámbito objetivo – alcanzando todos los servicios y prestaciones orientados a mejorar la salud-. Continuar leyendo «Aspectos económicos de la salud bucodental en España»

Converting Parkinson-Specific Scores into Health State Utilities to Assess Cost-Utility Analysis

Patient – Patient Centered Outcomes Research, vol. 11(6), pp. 665 – 675. (2018).

Autores: G. Chen, Miguel A. García-Gordillo, Daniel Collado-Mateo, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, José C. Adsuar, José M. Cordero-Ferreira,  José María Abellán-PerpiñánFernando Ignacio Sánchez-Martínez.

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Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-8 (PDQ-8) with three multi-attribute utility (MAU) instruments (EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D-5L, and 15D) and to develop mapping algorithms that could be used to transform PDQ-8 scores into MAU scores. Continuar leyendo «Converting Parkinson-Specific Scores into Health State Utilities to Assess Cost-Utility Analysis»